Models for diagnosis and treatment of learning disorders have changed over time. Still, there are many old beliefs and myths that may lead parents and schools in the wrong direction when working with children with learning disorders. Today, John and Ryan talk with Robin Peterson, Ph.D., ABPP-CN, about learning disorders, issues around diagnosing disorders of written expression, the concept of academic g and its relationship to Spearman’s g, risk factors for learning disorders, common comorbidities of learning disorders, the resource allocation hypothesis, and achievement gaps across groups.
- The difference between learning disability and learning disorder
- How learning disorders are not very “specific”
- Criteria for three well-defined learning disorders
- Recommendations for parents of children with specific writing-related difficulties
- The concept of academic g and its relationship to Spearman’s g
- Genetic and biological factors contributing to academic success
- Early cognitive predictors of learning disorders, including dyslexia
- Debunking the myth of reading letters backward in dyslexia
- Phoneme awareness in dyslexia
- Cognitive correlates of math and reading disorders
- Common comorbidities of learning disorders
- Learning disorders and attention difficulties
- Explanation of the resource allocation hypothesis
- Treatment models for learning disorders
- Clinical diagnostic decision making for learning disorders
- Achievement gaps across groups
Dr. Robin L. Peterson, Ph.D., ABPP-CN, is a Pediatric Neuropsychologist and Assistant Clinical Professor at the Children’s Hospital Colorado/University of Colorado School of Medicine. Robin is the co-author of the book, Diagnosing Learning Disorders: From Science to Practice, along with Drs. Bruce Pennington and Lauren McGrath. Her clinical and research interests include learning disabilities, pediatric traumatic brain injury, and spina bifida.
Caravolas, M., Lervåg, A., Defior, S., Seidlová Málková, G., & Hulme, C. (2013). Different patterns, but equivalent predictors, of growth in reading in consistent and inconsistent orthographies. Psychological Science, 24(8), 1398-1407.
Caravolas, M., Lervåg, A., Mousikou, P., Efrim, C., Litavský, M., Onochie-Quintanilla, E., … & Seidlová-Málková, G. (2012). Common patterns of prediction of literacy development in different alphabetic orthographies. Psychological Science, 23(6), 678-686.
Eklund, K., Torppa, M., Aro, M., Leppänen, P. H. T., & Lyytinen, H. (2015). Literacy Skill Development of Children With Familial Risk for Dyslexia Through Grades 2, 3, and 8. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(1), 126-140.
Florit, E., & Cain, K. (2011). The simple view of reading: Is it valid for different types of alphabetic orthographies? Educational Psychology Review, 23(4), 553-576.
Gough, P. B., & Tunmer, W. E. (1986). Decoding, reading, and reading disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7(1), 6-10.
Jacobson, L. A., Koriakin, T., Lipkin, P., Boada, R., Frijters, J. C., Lovett, M. W., … & Bosson-Heenan, J. (2017). Executive functions contribute uniquely to reading competence in minority youth. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 50(4), 422-433.
Keenan, J. M., Betjemann, R. S., & Olson, R. K. (2008). Reading comprehension tests vary in the skills they assess: Differential dependence on decoding and oral comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading, 12(3), 281-300.
Landerl, K., Ramus, F., Moll, K., Lyytinen, H., Leppänen, P. H. T., Lohvansuu, K., …. Schulte-Körne, G. (2013). Predictors of developmental dyslexia in European orthographies with varying complexity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 686–694.
MacDonald Wer, B. M. (2014). Comparison of reading development across socioeconomic status in the United States. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Denver).
Moll, K., Ramus, F., Bartling, J., Bruder, J., Kunze, S., Neuhoff, N., … Landerl, K. (2014). Cognitive mechanisms underlying reading and spelling development in five European orthographies. Learning and Instruction, 29, 65-77.
Morgan, P. L., Farkas, G., Hillemeier, M. M., Mattison, R., Maczuga, S., Li, H., & Cook, M. (2015). Minorities are disproportionately underrepresented in special education: Longitudinal evidence across five disability conditions. Educational Researcher, 44(5), 278-292.
Musu-Gillette, L., Robinson, J., McFarland, J., Kewal Ramani, A., Zhang, A., & Wilkinson-Flicker, S. (2016). Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups 2016. NCES 2016-007. National Center for Education Statistics.
Quinn, J. M. (2016). Predictors of reading comprehension: A model-based meta-analytic review (Doctoral dissertation, The Florida State University).
Salceda, J. C. R., Alonso, G. A., & Castilla-Earls, A. P. (2014). The simple view of reading in elementary school: A systematic review. Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología, 34(1), 17-31.
Seymour, P. H. K., Aro, M., Erskine, J. M., Wimmer, H., Leybaert, J., Elbro, C., … Olofsson, Å. (2003). Foundation literacy acquisition in European orthographies. British Journal of Psychology, 94(2), 143–174.
Share, D. L. (2008). On the Anglocentricities of current reading research and practice: the perils of overreliance on an” outlier” orthography. Psychological Bulletin, 134(4), 584-615.
Torppa, M., Georgiou, G. K., Lerkkanen, M. K., Niemi, P., Poikkeus, A. M., & Nurmi, J. E. (2016). Examining the simple view of reading in a transparent orthography: A longitudinal study from kindergarten to grade 3. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly (1982-), 62(2), 179-206.
Vaessen, A., Bertrand, D., Tóth, D., Csépe, V., Faísca, L., Reis, A., & Blomert, L. (2010). Cognitive development of fluent word reading does not qualitatively differ between transparent and opaque orthographies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(4), 827-842.
Washington, J. A., Branum-Martin, L., Lee-James, R., & Sun, C. (2018). Reading and language performance of low-income, African American boys in grades 1–5. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 1-23.
Wimmer, H., Mayringer, H., & Landerl, K. (2000). The double deficit hypothesis and difficulties in learning to read a regular orthography. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 668–680.
Ziegler, J. C., & Goswami, U. (2005). Reading acquisition, developmental dyslexia, and skilled reading across languages: a psycholinguistic grain size theory. Psychological Bulletin, 131(1), 3-29.